Farming in the Uplands with Biodiversity in mind
by Colm Gavin
It must be farmed
These areas must be actively farmed to maintain them in a high nature status. Abandonment can have a devastating impact on the variety of species in your land. The management and maintenance of these lands is critical for biodiversity.
Get an awareness of the species on your land
There is a lot of information out there of what is growing and living on your land. Get to know them and what suits them. This was the biggest eye opener for me, it gave me a new value on my land. What you are producing has so many different values.
Your farm advisor should be able to help you with any information you need. There is a lot of advice for management of the uplands available on line. There are good resources available from both The Pearl Mussel Project and the Hen Harrier Project, who are dealing with farmers with upland grazing providing excellent habitats.
Invasives species can cause a massive loss to Biodiversity. Well managed grazing can be the best way to control any invasives. Rhododendron has been the main species that I have being trying to control. Once again abandonment of these areas can lead to a take over from 1 species.
Consider Cattle in relation to Bracken and Molinia control
Where sheep are the most common grazers in our uplands, we have found that introducing cattle, during the summer, out on the Commonage has managed to keep the Molinia under control. They open the plant up and make it more accessible for sheep. Bracken is not a problem on our farm, but we have seen the cattle are a good option in areas where Bracken is an issue.
Communicate, visit, and learn from other farmers
We are not trying to reinvent the wheel. There are many farmers in your locality or in similar locations who are only happy to share their knowledge and happy to welcome you onto their farm. The development of networks in the uplands is very important in keeping these places lived in and farmed.
Both under grazing and overgrazing can have serious consequences for biodiversity on the uplands. We run 1 ewe to the Ha and find it works for our system and what we are trying to achieve. Some hills would not be fit for this stocking rate, others would suit a higher rate. Under grazing can affect some of the smaller birds like the meadow pippet. Overgrazing can open your peatlands too much, leaving no cover, and leave no room for life. It’s a fine balance and needs to be monitored over a long period and results noted.
Farmers here are the rare species
Farmers in the uplands are the species that needs to be looked after. There is a wealth of knowledge, experience and understanding in upland farmers, this should not be overlooked, it can be lost very easily. Decreasing rural populations in these areas is a very serious problem. These are generally areas of high nature value, but the management of these areas and life in these areas does not feel too valued. Developing of networks, friendships, communities, and learning are very important in the uplands.
About Colm Gavin
Colm Gavin is an 8th generation farmer, farming in the Bundorragha catchment in Mayo. He farms 90-100 Mayo blackface ewes. The sheep are out on the mountain year-round, grazing the multi-species natural vegetation and maintaining the land. Colm operates a very extensive hill farming operation and very few external inputs are required on the farm. Colm is involved in the Pearl Mussel Project EIP. This project rewards participant farmers for the ecological quality of their land, which in turn contributes to the pristine water quality needed by the Freshwater Pearl Mussel. As part of his work in this project, Colm continues to remove invasive rhododendron from the mountain, as well as installing silt traps to capture excess sand/silt runoff from the land before it enters the river. He has also put in livestock bridges at various points along the riverfront to further protect the water quality. “Being part of the Pearl Mussel Project EIP puts value on land that we wouldn’t have considered highly valuable in the past. These areas have actually turned out to be the most important areas on the farm in terms of biodiversity.” Passionate about the beautiful landscape and nature that makes up his farm, Colm sees himself as a caretaker of the land and hopes the pass it on to the next generation in better condition than which he found it; “as a hill farmer – all you’re doing is maintaining the land.” More information on Colm’s farm here. Ambassador since 2021